Poke /poʊˈkeɪ/ (Hawaiian for "to section" or "to slice or cut") is a raw fish salad served as an appetizer in Hawaiian cuisine, and sometimes as a main course. Traditional forms are aku (an oily tuna) and he'e (octopus). He'e (octopus) poke is usually called by its Japanese name "Tako" Poke, except in places like the island of Ni'ihau where the Hawaiian language is spoken. Increasingly popular ahi poke is generally made with yellowfin tuna. Adaptations may feature raw salmon or various shellfish as a main ingredient served raw with the common "poke" seasonings.
Poke began with fishermen seasoning the cut-offs from their catch to serve as a snack. Traditional poke seasonings have been heavily influenced by Japanese and other Asian cuisines. These include soy sauce, green onions, and sesame oil. Others include furikake chopped dried or fresh chili pepper, limu (seaweed), sea salt, inamona (roasted crushed candlenut), fish eggs, wasabi, and Maui onions. Other variations of poke may include cured hee (octopus), other types of raw tuna, raw salmon and various kinds of shellfish.
Traditional Hawaiian poke may consist of cubed raw fish, maui onions, Inamona (a condiment made of roasted, salted candlenut), Limu (algae), soy sauce, green onions, or sesame oil. Some of the more contemporary variations can also include seaweed, Roe (fish eggs) wasabi, dried or fresh chilli, toasted macadamia nut, Furikake and can be served alone or on top of a bed of white rice, pineapple, Sushi-meshi (seasoned rice) or red cabbage. The possibilities for variation are endless, however, what gives Ahi Poke its name is the yellowfin "Ahi" tuna used.
The traditional Hawaiian poke consists of fish that has been gutted, skinned, and deboned. It is sliced across the backbone as fillet, then served with traditional condiments such as sea salt, candlenut, seaweed, and limu.
According to the food historian Rachel Laudan, the present form of poke became popular around the 1970s. It used skinned, deboned, and filleted raw fish served with Hawaiian salt, seaweed, and roasted, ground kukui nut meat. This form of poke is still common in the Hawaiian islands.
Beginning around 2012, poke became increasingly popular in the mainland United States. A number of poke restaurants—mostly but not exclusively fast casual restaurants—became popular. From 2014 to mid-2016, "the number of Hawaiian restaurants on Foursquare, which includes those that serve poke," doubled, going from 342 to 700. These restaurants have been creating traditional as well as unique, modern versions of the dish. These variations can include avocado, ponzu sauce, teriyaki sauce, mushrooms, crispy onions, pickled jalapeno, Sriracha sauce, cilantro, pineapple or cucumber. The contemporary poke restaurants are mainly fast casual style places where the dish is fully customizable from the base to the marinade on the fish. They may use other seafood but ahi tuna is the most popular. There is a three day "I Love Poke" festival to celebrate the dish and its many variations.
Raw fish dishes similar to poke that are often served in Europe are fish carpaccio and fish tartare. Also similar to poke are Korean hoedeopbap, marinated raw tuna served over rice, and Peruvian ceviche. Japanese sashimi also consists of raw seafood; other similar Japanese dishes are zuke don, a donburi dish topped with cured fish along with avocado topped with furikake, and kaisendon, a more elaborate version served with additional non-fish toppings.
Corn chowder is a chowder soup prepared using corn as a primary ingredient. Basic corn chowder ingredients comprise corn, onion, celery, milk or cream and butter. Additional ingredients sometimes used include potatoes, salt pork, fish, seafood and chicken. In the United States, recipes for corn chowder date to at least as early as 1884. Corn chowder is mass-produced as a canned food in the U.S.
Corn chowder is a thick cream-based soup or chowder. It is similar to New England clam chowder, with corn used in place of or substituted for clams in the recipe. Basic ingredients in corn chowder include corn, chopped onion and celery, milk or cream, butter, flour, salt and pepper. Fresh shucked corn with the corn kernels sliced off, canned corn and frozen corn can be used to prepare the dish. In addition to corn, it often contains potatoes, and additional vegetables can also be used. The potatoes can aid in thickening the soup. Chicken stock can also be used as an ingredient, as can salt pork, bacon, crackers and corn starch, the latter as a thickener.
Corn cobs can be used as an ingredient when preparing fresh stock for the dish, and cooking them down can also serve to thicken the soup. Various fish and seafoods are sometimes used as ingredients in corn chowder, and chicken is also sometimes used. Some people serve basic corn chowder as a vegetarian alternative to clam chowder.
In the United States, recipes for corn chowder date back to at least 1884, at which time a corn chowder recipe was published in the Boston Cook Book, authored by Mary Lincoln of the Boston Cooking School. Another corn chowder recipe was published in the Boston Cooking-School Cook Book in 1896, which was authored by Fannie Farmer, Lincoln's successor at the Boston Cooking School. Farmer's recipe utilized canned corn, a product that emerged around the mid-1800s in the U.S. The 1896 recipe also included salt pork, potatoes and crackers as ingredients. After Lincoln's published recipe in 1884, myriad recipes for corn chowder began circulating in various cookbooks in the United States, with many types of recipe variations. For example, some recipes utilized cream, milk or condensed milk, and thickeners included the use of flour or eggs.
Around the early 1900s, the Shakers were well-known for their chowder soups and general culinary skills. A simple Shakers recipe from this time period for corn chowder used just three ingredients: cream, butter and fresh corn.
Corn chowder is a mass-produced canned food product in the United States. The Campbell Soup Company manufactures and markets prepared canned soup products named "Sweet Potato Corn Chowder", "Campbell's Healthy Request Chunky Corn Chowder", "Campbell's Chunky Chicken Corn Chowder" and "Clam and Corn Chowder with Bacon."
Progresso, a General Mills brand, manufactures and markets corn chowders, such as "Rich & Hearty Chicken Corn Chowder" and "Light Chicken Corn Chowder."
Costco markets a corn chowder under its Kirkland Signature brand name, named "Kirkland Roasted Corn Chowder."
Safeway Inc. markets a corn chowder under their "Signature Cafe" store brand.
Poutine is a dish originating from the Canadian province of Quebec consisting of French fries and cheese curds topped with a brown gravy. The dish emerged in the late 1950s in the Centre-du-Québec area and has long been associated with the cuisine of Quebec. For many years it was negatively perceived and mocked, and even used as a means of stigmatization against Quebec society. However, since the mid-2000s poutine has been celebrated as a symbol of Québécois cultural pride, and its rise in prominence led to popularity outside the province, especially in central Canada and the northeast United States. Annual poutine celebrations occur in Montreal, Quebec City, and Drummondville, as well as Toronto, Ottawa, Chicago, and Manchester, New Hampshire. Today it is often identified as quintessential Canadian food and has been called "Canada's national dish", though some have commented that this labelling represents misappropriation of Québécois culture. Many variations on the original recipe are popular, leading some to suggest that poutine has emerged as a new dish classification in its own right, just like sandwiches, dumplings, soups, and flatbreads.
The dish originated in the Centre-du-Québec area in the late 1950s. Several restaurants from the area claim to be the inventor of the dish but no consensus exists. Poutine was originally consumed in small "greasy spoon" type diners (commonly known as cantines or casse-croûtes in Quebec) and pubs, as well as by roadside chip wagons (commonly known as cabanes à patates, literally "potato shacks") and in hockey arenas. Today, poutine is found in all types of restaurants.
The Dictionnaire historique du français québécois lists 15 different meanings of poutine in Quebec and Acadian French, most of which are for kinds of food; the word poutine in the meaning "fries with cheese and gravy" is dated to 1982. Other senses of the word have been in use since at least 1810.
While the exact provenance of the word "poutine" is uncertain, some attribute it to the English word pudding. Among its various culinary senses, that of "a dessert made from flour or bread crumbs" most clearly shows this influence; the word pouding, borrowed from the English pudding, is in fact a synonym in this sense. The pejorative meaning "fat person" of poutine is believed to derive from the English pudding "a person or thing resembling a pudding" or "stout, thick-set person".
The Dictionnaire historique mentions the possibility that the form poutine is simply a gallicization of the word pudding. However, it considers it more likely that it was inherited from regional languages spoken in France, and that some of its meanings resulted from the later influence of the similar-sounding English word pudding. It cites the Provençal forms poutingo "bad stew" and poutité "hodgepodge" or "crushed fruit or foods"; poutringo "mixture of various things" in Languedocien; and poutringue, potringa "bad stew" in Franche-Comté as possibly related to poutine. The meaning "fries with cheese and gravy" of poutine is among those held as probably unrelated to pudding provided the latter view is correct.
According to Merriam-Webster, a popular etymology is that poutine is from a Québécois slang word meaning "mess".
In the basic recipe for poutine, French fries are covered with fresh cheese curds, and topped with brown gravy. In a traditional Quebec poutine:
Heavy beef- or pork-based brown gravies are rarely used. To maintain the texture of the fries, the cheese curd and gravy are added immediately prior to serving the dish. The hot gravy is usually poured over the room-temperature cheese curds, so that the cheese is warmed without completely melting. It is important to control the temperature, timing and the order in which the ingredients are added, so as to obtain the right food textures which is an essential part of the experience of eating poutine.
A cultural marker, poutine has long been Quebec's adored junk food before spreading out across the rest of Canada and the USA. It is said to be "the perfect thing after a night of drinking".
Poutine served as a comfort food for the local community after the Lac-Megantic derailment. Three varieties are offered at the Le Cellier Steakhouse at Epcot Center's Canada pavilion.
In May 2014, the word "poutine" was added to the Merriam-Webster dictionary of the English language.
In 2007, the CBC declared the outcome of an online survey on the greatest Canadian inventions of all time. Poutine arrived at No. 10, beating, among other items, the electron microscope, the BlackBerry, and the paint roller.
Poutine has been a highlight of the London, UK, "Canada Day" celebrations in Trafalgar Square for several years.
However, poutine has since made inroads into proper culinary circles, challenging its junk food status. Thus in 2011, well-known chef Chuck Hughes won on Iron Chef America (episode 2 of season 9) by beating out his heavyweight competitor Bobby Flay with a plate of lobster poutine.
In 2013, Jones Soda Co., originally a Canadian company but now based in the USA, created a poutine-flavored limited-edition soft drink, which got international pop culture attention.
In 2014, bacon-poutine was one of four flavours selected as a finalist in the Lay's Canada 'Do Us A Flavour' potato chip contest, although it did not win that competition. However, Lay's has since added a bacon-poutine variety in its 'Canada' entry for the 'World Flavourites', and Loblaws' President's Choice and Ruffles brands offer poutine-flavored potato chips in Canada.
Smoke's Poutinerie sponsors a world poutine eating championship, and also a cross-Canada poutine eating tour.
Montreal hosts a competitive "La Poutine Week" every year in February. Members of the public can download an app in order to rate the poutines they have tried. Ottawa-Gatineau, Toronto, Calgary, Quebec City, Sherbrooke and others similarly hold their own weeks. Some United States cities such as Manchester, NH (NH PoutineFest), Chicago, IL, and Knoxville, TN, have festivals also.
Scampi, also called Dublin Bay Prawn, or Norway Lobster, is an edible lobster of the order Decapoda (class Crustacea). It is widespread in the Mediterranean and northeastern Atlantic, from North Africa to Norway and Iceland, and as a gastronomic delicacy. Scampi is now the only extant species in the genus Nephrops, after several other species were moved to the closely related genus Metanephrops.
Shrimp Scampi is a food that includes various culinary preparations of certain crustaceans), such as Metanephrops, as well as shrimp or prawns. Shrimp Scampi preparation styles vary regionally. The United Kingdom legally defines scampi specifically as Nephrops norvegicus, Monkfish tail was sometimes illegally used and sold as scampi in the United Kingdom in the past contravening the Fish Labelling (Amendment) England Regulation 2005 and Schedule 1 of the Food Labelling Regulations 1996.
Scampi is the Italian plural of scampo, Nephrops norvegicus. In English, scampi is used as singular, plural, or uncountable. The Italian word may be derived from the Greek κάμπη kampē . Years after scampi became scarce. Due to scarcity, Italy, Greece, the United Kingdom and Spain would often substitute shrimp in scampi when required.
Scampi, or Langoustines or Norway lobsters – Nephrops norvegicus – are roughly the size of a large crayfish and fished from silty bottom regions of the open Atlantic Ocean, and parts of the Mediterranean. The fleshy tail of the Norway lobster is closer in both taste and texture to lobster and crayfish than prawn or shrimp.
Norway lobster are also known as Dublin Bay prawns, though the term "prawn" can be confusing since it is sometimes used to describe several varieties of shellfish: the first group includes members of the lobster family such as scampi while the second takes in large shrimp, particularly those that live in fresh water. However, in terms of biological classification, lobsters like scampi are of a different family from prawns/shrimp.
The food labelling laws (in Britain, for example) define "scampi" as Nephrops norvegicus.
According to Larousse Gastronomique, langoustine are delicate and need to be poached only for a few seconds in court-bouillon. When very fresh they have a slightly sweet flavour that is lost when they are frozen. They can be eaten plain, accompanied by melted butter.
In Britain the shelled tail meat is generally referred to as "scampi tails" or "wholetail scampi", although cheaper "re-formed scampi" can contain other parts together with other fish. It is served fried in batter or breadcrumbs and usually with chips and tartare sauce. It is widely available in supermarkets and restaurants, considered pub or snack food although factors reducing Scottish fishing catches generally can affect its availability.
In the United States, "shrimp scampi" is the menu name for shrimp in Italian-American cuisine (the actual word for "shrimp" in Italian is gambero or gamberetto, plural gamberi or gamberetti). "Scampi" by itself, is a dish of Nephrops norvegicus served in garlic butter and dry white wine, with cheese, served either with bread, or over pasta or rice, although sometimes just the shrimp alone. Most variants of the "shrimp scampi" come on pasta. The word "shrimp scampi" is construed as a style of preparation, and with variants such as "chicken scampi", "lobster scampi" and "scallop scampi". Lidia Bastianich: "In the United States, shrimps are available, not scampi, so the early immigrants prepared the shrimp they found in the scampi style they remembered."
Owing to the decline of fish stocks, British chefs including Heston Blumenthal and Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall are attempting to raise awareness of alternative seafoods, by championing scampi and other lesser-known seafood dishes as a more sustainable source of protein.
In the United States, National Shrimp Scampi Day occurs annually on April 29.
Corn on the cob is a culinary term used for a cooked ear of freshly picked maize from a cultivar of sweet corn. Sweet corn is the most common variety of maize eaten directly off the cob. The ear is picked while the endosperm is in the "milk stage" so that the kernels are still tender. Ears of corn are steamed or boiled, usually without their green husks, or roasted with them. The husk leaves are in any case removed before serving.
Corn on the cob is normally eaten while still warm. It is often seasoned with salt and buttered before serving. Some diners use specialized skewers, thrust into the ends of the cob, to hold the ear while eating without touching the hot and sticky kernels.
The most common methods for cooking corn on the cob are frying, boiling, roasting, and grilling. Corn on the cob can be grilled directly in its husk, or it can be husked first and then wrapped in aluminum foil. When oven roasting, cooking the corn in the husk directly on the rack is recommended. When roasting or grilling corn on the cob, the cook can first peel the husk back to rub the corn with oil or melted butter, then re-secure the husk around the corn with a string.
Common condiments and seasonings for corn on the cob include butter, salt, and black pepper.
Lillian Eichler Watson, in a 1921 etiquette book, described corn on the cob as "without a doubt one of the most difficult foods to eat gracefully." She added that "it is entirely permissible to use the fingers in eating corn, holding it lightly at each end; sometimes a napkin is used in holding it." Sometimes, however, a short sharp knife would be provided that each diner could use to cut or scrape the kernels from the cob for later eating. She described this as "by far the most satisfactory method" of eating corn on the cob.
Some etiquette books recommend salting and buttering the corn a section at a time just before eating that section, which helps to minimize the mess on the diner's face and hands. Butter dripping down the diner's chin and kernels getting stuck in-between teeth may be a source of embarrassment for the diner.
Cob Shanks are eating utensils used to hold corn on the cob. Cob Shanks have been used since ancient times, ranging from articles made of wood found in ethnographic museums to precious tableware made of silver.
Other utensils for eating corn on the cob include specialty knives from removing the kernels, brushes for removing the silk and knives for buttering.
Corn was eaten by Native American tribes before European settlers arrived in the Americas. The Maya ate corn as a staple food crop and ate it off the cob, either roasting or boiling it. Aboriginal Canadians in southern parts of Canada also eat corn.
A wrap is made with a soft flatbread rolled around a filling.
The usual flatbreads are wheat tortillas, lavash, or pita; the filling usually consists of cold sliced meat, poultry, or fish accompanied by shredded lettuce, diced tomato or pico de gallo, guacamole, sauteed mushrooms, bacon, grilled onions, cheese, and a sauce, such as ranch or honey mustard.
Mexicans, Armenians, Middle Easterners, Greeks and Turks have been eating wraps since before the 1900s. Mexicans refer to them as burritos, and they come in different ingredient varieties, primarily wheat flour or corn.
The wrap in its Western form probably comes from California, as a generalization of the Tex-Mex burrito, and became popular in the 1990s. It may have been invented and named at a southern California chain called "I Love Juicy" in the early 1980s. The OVO Bistro in NYC introduced its wrap sandwich in 1990 under the name "The King Edward," The Bobby Valentine Sports Gallery Cafe in Stamford, Connecticut is sometimes claimed to have invented the wrap at about the same time, but Valentine is diffident about it: "Well, that's legend and folklore, but until somebody disputes me or comes up with a better story, I'll say I invented the wrap." Beth Dolan of Stamford, Connecticut is the waitress credited for serving the first wrap after the restaurant had run out of bread. Moreover, Valentine's own story dates his use of the name 'wrap' to the mid-1990s, after it is documented in California.
A wrap is a variation of a sandwich: a sandwich has two distinct layers which are the top and bottom pieces of bread. A wrap, on the other hand, is one piece that completely surrounds the content of the wrap.
Restaurants such as Camille's Sidewalk Cafe, Sonic Drive-In, Jason's Deli, Buffalo Wild Wings, Subway, Chick-fil-A, Roly Poly and McAlister's Deli serve wraps. KFC now serves its chicken in a wrap as menu choice, with lettuce, mayonnaise and salsa. McDonald's has a snack wrap, with a fried, or grilled chicken strip, lettuce, Cheddar, and ranch dressing. Smokey Bones Barbeque and Grill has recently introduced a Portobello Chicken Wrap to broaden their selection of grilled menu items. Wraps are also very popular in Australia and New Zealand with chains such as Oporto and Burger Fuel amongst others serving them.
The UK wrap market has grown substantially since 2004 with all major sandwich and fast food stores now selling wraps.
The Cobb salad is a main-dish American garden salad typically made with chopped salad greens tomato, crisp bacon, boiled, grilled or roasted (but not fried) chicken breast, hard-boiled eggs, avocado, chives, Roquefort cheese, and red-wine vinaigrette. Black olives are also often included.
Various stories exist recounting how the salad was invented. One says that it came about in the 1930s at the Hollywood Brown Derby restaurant, where it became a signature dish. It is named for the restaurant's owner, Robert Howard Cobb. Stories vary whether the salad was invented by Cobb or by his chef, Paul J. Posti. The legend is that Cobb had not eaten until near midnight, and so he mixed together leftovers he found in the kitchen, along with some bacon cooked by the line cook, and tossed it with their French dressing.
Another version of the creation is that Robert Kreis, executive chef at the restaurant, created the salad in 1929 and named it in honor of Robert Cobb. The same source confirms that 1937 was the reported date of the version noted above, with Cobb making the salad.
A third origin credits the Calistoga area of Northern California, where health seekers flocked for the healing hot springs and mud baths. Locals say it was on the menu at the Calistoga Inn as early as 1920, was named after nearby Cobb Mountain due to its mounding display, with the ingredients coming from an old written family favorite, suggested by a Mrs. Gorbett of Main Street in nearby St. Helena.
There are several shopping centers in Honolulu, ranging from your typical large strip malls to more unique areas popular with tourists. The International Market Place in Waikiki is one such spot, filled with market stalls and shops laid out amongst a jungle-like backdrop of banyan trees. Also in Waikiki is the Royal Hawaiian Shopping Center, the duty-free T Galleria by DFS, and the Waikiki Shopping Plaza, also very popular with tourists.
Downtown also has a few shopping areas. The Aloha Tower Marketplace on the harborfront next to Aloha Tower is popular with tourists. Between Downtown and Waikiki is the Ala Moana Center, the largest shopping mall in Hawaii and the largest open-air shopping center in the world. There are also the Victoria Ward Centers. For something truly unique, Chinatown has food and seafood markets, as well as many Lei makers on the street corners.
Eastern Honolulu has a couple of regional malls, Kahala Mall and Koko Marina Center, with various large stores and movie theaters. In Western Honolulu, Aloha Stadium is home to the Aloha Stadium Swap Meet every Wednesday, Saturday, and Sunday, and offers a chance to buy from local merchants and artists and get things for far cheaper than you can anywhere else. Past Western Honolulu in the suburb of Aiea is the Pearlridge Center, the largest indoor mall in the state, with the upscale outlet center Waikele Premium Outlets further afield in the suburb of Waipahu.
Honolulu's tropical climate lends itself to year-round activities. In 2004, Men's Fitness magazine named Honolulu the fittest city in the United States. Honolulu has three large road races:
Ironman Hawaii was first held in Honolulu. It was the first ever Ironman triathlon event and is also the world championship.
Fans of spectator sports in Honolulu generally support the football, volleyball, basketball, rugby union, rugby league and baseball programs of the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. High school sporting events, especially football, are especially popular.
Honolulu has no professional sports teams. It was the home of the Hawai'i Islanders (Pacific Coast League, 1961–87), The Hawaiians (World Football League, 1974–75), Team Hawaii (North American Soccer League, 1977), and the Hawaiian Islanders (af2, 2002–04).
The NCAA football Hawaii Bowl is played in Honolulu. Honolulu has also hosted the NFL's annual Pro Bowl each February from 1980 to 2009. After the 2010 and 2015 games were played in Miami Gardens and Glendale, respectively, the Pro Bowl was once again in Honolulu from 2011 to 2014 with 2016 the most recent. From 1993 to 2008, Honolulu hosted Hawaii Winter Baseball, featuring minor league players from Major League Baseball, Nippon Professional Baseball, Korea Baseball Organization, and independent leagues.
Cioppino with bread Cioppino is a fish stew originating in San Francisco, California. It is considered an Italian-American dish, and is related to various regional fish soups and stews of Italian cuisine.
Cioppino is traditionally made from the catch of the day, which in San Francisco is typically a combination of Dungeness crab, clams, shrimp, scallops, squid, mussels, and fish all sourced from salt-water ocean; in this case the Pacific. The seafood is then combined with fresh tomatoes in a wine sauce.
The dish can be served with toasted bread, either local sourdough or French bread. In the dish, the bread is as a starch, similar to a pasta. It is freely dipped into the ample quantity of sauce. The bread then absorbs, holds, and modulates the flavorful yet slender sauce; that is to be freely "sopped up" by the heavy, full bodied breads. The bread's consumption, after dipping into the sauce, prolongs the flavors on the palate when eating the dish.
Cioppino was developed in the late 1800s primarily by Italian immigrants who settled in the North Beach neighborhood of San Francisco, many from the port city of Genoa. When a fisherman came back empty handed, they would walk around with a pot to the other fishermen asking them to chip in whatever they could. What ever ended up in the pot became their Cioppino. The fishermen that chipped in expected the same treatment if they came back empty handed in the future. It later became a staple as Italian restaurants proliferated in San Francisco.
The name comes from ciuppin which is the name of a classic soup from the Italian region Liguria, similar in flavor to cioppino but with less tomato and using Mediterranean seafood cooked to the point that it falls apart.
The dish also shares its origin with other regional Italian variations of seafood stew similar to ciuppin, including cacciucco from Tuscany, brodetto di pesce from Abruzzo, and others. Similar dishes can be found in coastal regions throughout the Mediterranean, from Portugal to Greece. Examples of these include suquet de peix from Catalan-speaking regions and bouillabaisse from Provence.
Generally the seafood is cooked in broth and served in the shell, including the crab, which is often served halved or quartered. It therefore requires special utensils, typically a crab fork and cracker. Depending on the restaurant, it may be accompanied by a bib to prevent food stains on clothing, a damp napkin, and a second bowl for the shells. A variation, commonly called "lazy man's cioppino," is served with shells pre-cracked or removed.